1. What Is Asthma?
National Institutes of Health. International consensus report on diagnosis and treatment of asthma. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health. Bethesda, Maryland 20892. Publication no. 92-3091, 1992.
Pearce N, Beasley R, Burgess C, et al. Asthma epidemiology: principles and methods. New York: Oxford University Press,1998.
Pearce N, Pekkanen J, and Beasley R. How much asthma is really attributable to atopy? Thorax 1999; 54(3): 268-72.
2. Asthma in Children
Asher MI, Montefort S, Björkstén B, et al. Worldwide time trends in the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in childhood: ISAAC Phases One and Three repeat multicountry cross-sectional surveys. Lancet 2006; 368(9537): 733-43.
ISAAC Steering Committee. Worldwide variations in the prevalence of asthma symptoms: the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Eur Resp J 1998; 12(2): 315-35.
Lai CKW, Beasley R, Crane J, et al. Global variation in the prevalence and severity of asthma symptoms: Phase Three of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Thorax 2009; 64(6): 476-483.
Pearce N, Aït-Khaled N, Beasley R, et al. Worldwide trends in the prevalence of asthma symptoms: Phase III of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Thorax 2007; 62(9): 758-66.
3. Asthma in Adults
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2. Burney P, Chinn S. Developing a new questionnaire for measuring the prevalence and distribution of asthma. Chest. 1987 Jun;91(6 Suppl):79S-83S.
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4. Burney P, Laitinen LA, Perdrizet S, Huckauf H, Tattersfield AE, Chinn S, et al. Validity and repeatability of the IUATLD (1984) bronchial symptoms questionnaire: An international comparison. Eur Respir J. 1989;2:940-5.
5. Yan K, Salome C, Woolcock AJ. Rapid method for measurement of bronchial responsiveness. Thorax. 1983;38:760-5.
6. Chinn S, Burney P, Britton JR, Tattersfield AE, Higgins BG. Comparison of PD20 with two alternative measures of response to histamine challenge in epidemiological studies. Eur Respir J. 1993;6:670-9.
7. Pekkanen J, Burney P, Sunyer J, Anto JM. Operational definitions of asthma in studies on its aetiology. Eur Respir J. 2005;26(1):28-35.
8. Sunyer J, Pekkanen J, Garcia-Esteban R, Svanes C, Kunzli N, Janson C, et al. Asthma score: Predictive ability and risk factors. Allergy. 2007 Feb;62(2):142-8.
9. Burney P, Luczynska C, Chinn S, Jarvis D. The European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Eur Respir J. 1994;7:954-60.
10. Burney P, Chinn S, Jarvis D, Luczynska C, Lai E. Variations in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, self-reported asthma attacks, and use of asthma medication in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Eur Respir J. 1996;9:687-95.
11. Chinn S, Burney P, Jarvis D, Luczynska C. Variation in bronchial responsiveness in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Eur Respir J. 1997 Nov;10(11):2495-501.
12. Burney P, Malmberg E, Chinn S, Jarvis D, Luczynska C, Lai E. The distribution of total and specific IgE in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1997;99:314-22.
13. Saraclar Y, Cetinkaya F, Tuncer A, Kalayci O, Adalioglu G, Sekerel BE, et al. The prevalence of self-reported asthma and respiratory symptoms in Ankara, Turkey. Respir Med. 1997;91(8):461-3.
14. Leshchenko I, Chirkov V, Livshits A. Epidemiologiia bronkhial’noi astmy v krupnom promyshlennom regione. Ter Arkh. 1998;70(12):41-3.
15. Celik G, Mungan D, Bavbek S, Sin B, Ediger D, Demirel Y, et al. The prevalence of allergic diseases and atopy in Ankara, Turkey: A two-step population-based epidemiological study. J Asthma. 1999;36(3):281-90.
16. Ozdemir N, Ucgun I, Metintas S, Kolsuz M, Metintas M. The prevalence of asthma and allergy among university freshmen in Eskisehir, Turkey. Respir Med. 2000;94(6):536-41.
17. Jindal SK, Gupta D, Aggarwal AN, Jindal RC, Singh V. Study of the prevalence of asthma in adults in north India using a standardized field questionnaire. J Asthma. 2000;37(4):345.
18. Priftanji AV, Qirko E, Burr ML, Layzell JCM, Williams KL. Factors associated with asthma in Albania. Allergy. 2002;57(2):123-8.
19. Akkurt I, Sumer H, Ozsahin SL, Gonlugur U, Ozdemir L, Dogan O, et al. Prevalence of asthma and related symptoms in Sivas, central Anatolia. J Asthma;40(5):551-6.
20. Ehrlich RI, White N, Norman R, Laubscher R, Steyn K, Lombard C, et al. Wheeze, asthma diagnosis and medication use: A national adult survey in a developing country. Thorax. 2005;60(11):895-901.
21. Sakar A, Yorgancioglu A, Dinc G, Yuksel H, Celik P, Dagyildizi L, et al. The prevalence of asthma and allergic symptoms in Manisa, Turkey. Asian Pacific J Allergy Immunol. 2006;24(1):17-25.
22. Pearce N, Sunyer J, Cheng S, Chinn S, Bjorksten B, Burr M, et al. Comparison of asthma prevalence in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Eur Respir J. 2000 Sep;16(3):420-6.
23. Sembajwe G, Cifuentes M, Tak SW, Kriebel D, Gore R, Punnett L. National income, self-reported wheezing and asthma diagnosis from the World Health Survey. Eur Respir J. 2010;35(2):279.
24. Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). Global strategy for asthma management and prevention. Bethesda, USA: National Institutes of Health, Bethesda; 1995.
25. Rabe K, Adachi M, Lai CKW, Soriano J, Vermeire P, Weiss K, et al. Worldwide severity and control of asthma in children and adults: The global asthma insights and reality surveys. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;114(1):40.
26. Neffen H, Fritscher C, Schacht F, Levy G, Chiarella P, Soriano J, et al. Asthma control in Latin America: The asthma insights and reality in Latin America (AIRLA) survey. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2005;17(3):191.
27. Jarvis D, Luczynska C, Chinn S, Potts J, Sunyer J, Janson C, et al. Change in prevalence of IgE sensitization and mean total IgE with age and cohort. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005116(3):675-82.
28. Law M, Morris JK, Wald N, Luczynska C, Burney P. Changes in atopy over a quarter of a century, based on cross sectional data at three time periods. BMJ 2005;330(7501):1187-8.
29. Chinn S, Jarvis D, Burney P, Luczynska C, Ackermann-Liebrich U, Anto JM, et al. Increase in diagnosed asthma but not in symptoms in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Thorax. 2004;59(8):646-51.
30. Brøgger J, Bakke P, Eide GE, Johansen B, Andersen AR, Gulsvik A. Trends in symptoms of obstructive lung disease in Norway. Int J Tuberculosis Lung Dis. 2004;8(12):1416.
31. Janson C, Kunzli N, de Marco R, Chinn S, Jarvis D, Svanes C, et al. Changes in active and passive smoking in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Eur Respir J. 2006 Mar;27(3):517-24.
4. Factors Affecting Asthma
Pearce N, Douwes J, and Beasley R. Asthma. In: Oxford textbook of public health, 4th ed. Detels R, McEwen J, Beaglehole R, and Tanaka H, (eds). 2002, Oxford: Oxford University Press, vol 3, pp 1255-77.
Strachan DP. The role of environmental factors in asthma. Br Med Bull 2000;58(4): 865-882.
U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2006.
5: Asthma and Air Pollution
Anderson HR, Favarato G, Atkinson RW. Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and the prevalence of asthma: meta-analysis of multi-community prevalence studies. Air Qual Atmos Health 2011 DOI: 10.1007/s11869-011-0145-4.
Anderson HR, Favarato G, Atkinson RW. Long-term exposure to air pollution and the incidence of asthma: meta-analysis of cohort studies. Air Qual Atmos Health 2011 DOI: 10.1007/s11869-011-0144-5.
Anderson HR, Ruggles R, Pandey KD, et al. Ambient particulate pollution and the world-wide prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema in children: Phase One of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Occup Environ Med 2010; 67(5): 293-300.
Brunekreef B, Stewart AW, Anderson HR, et al. Self reported truck traffic in street of residence and symptoms of asthma and allergic disease: a global relationship in ISAAC Phase Three. Environ Health Persp 2009; 117(11): 1791-1798.
Department of Health Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants. Asthma and outdoor air pollution. London: HMSO, 1995.
Health Effects Institute. HEI Special Report 17: Traffic-related air pollution: a critical review of the literature on emissions, exposure, and health effects. Health Effects Institute, Boston MA, 2010.
WHO European Centre for Environment and Health. Effects of air pollution on children’s health and development - a review of the evidence. WHO Regional Office For Europe, Bonn, 2005. http://www.euro.who.int/air/activities/20060421_1.
WHO. World Health Organization guidelines for indoor air quality: selected pollutants. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, 2010. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/ assets/pdf_file/0009/128169/e94535.pdf.
6. Asthma and COPD
Buist A S, McBurnie M A, Vollmer W M, Gillespie S, Burney P, Mannino D M, et al. International variation in the prevalence of COPD (The BOLD Study): a population-based prevalence study. Lancet 2007;370:741-50.
Menezes A M, Perez-Padilla R, Jardim J B, Muino A, Lopez M V, Valdivia G, et al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in five Latin American cities (the PLATINO study): a prevalence study. Lancet 2005;366:1875-81.
7. Essentials of Asthma Management
Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). Global strategy for asthma management and prevention. Bethesda (MD): GINA, 2010.
Aït-Khaled N, Enarson DA, Chiang C-Y, Marks G, Bissell K. Management of asthma: a guide to the essentials of good clinical practice. Paris: International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2008.
8. The Role of Guidelines in Managing Asthma
Fitzgerald JM and Quon BS. The impact of asthma guidelines. Lancet 2010; 376(9743): 751-3.
Rabe KF. Decramer M, and Siafakas N, The year of the lung. Lancet 2010; 376(9743): 753-4.
9. Essential Medicines
Mendis S, Fukino K, Cameron A, et al. The availability and affordability of selected essential medicines for chronic diseases in six low- and middle-income countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2007 Apr; 85(4):279-88.
Cameron A, Ewen M, Ross-Degnan D, et al. Medicine prices, availability, and affordability in 36 developing and middle-income countries: a secondary analysis. Lancet. 2009 Jan 17;373(9659):240-9.
WHO. Medicines prices, availability and affordability. The World Medicines Situation 2011. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2011 WHO/EMP/MIE/2011.2.1.
World Health Organization, Health Action International Medicine prices: A new approach to measurement. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2003.
McFadyen JE Management Sciences for Health. International drug price indicator guide, Boston. Management Sciences for Health, 2010.
Babar ZUD, Ibrahim MIM, Singh H, Bukahri NI, Creese A. Evaluating drug prices, availability, affordability, and price components: implications for access to drugs in Malaysia. PLoS Med 2007;4:e82.
10. Asthma Drug Facility
Macé C, Bissell K, Billo NE. Access to essential asthma medicines: the response of the Asthma Drug Facility. WHO Essential Medicines Monitor, Issue 5 (August 2011).
11. Country Profiles
The Global Burden of Disease: 2004 update. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2008.
Chilean health statistics DEIS MINSAL, 2009. www.minsal.cl
Haahtela T, Klaukka T, Koskela K, Erhola M, Laitinen LA; Working Group of the Asthma Programme in Finland 1994-2004. Asthma programme in Finland: a community problem needs community solutions. Thorax. 2001;56:806-14.
Haahtela T, Tuomisto L, Pietinalho A, Klaukka T, Erhola M, Kaila M, Nieminen MM, Kontula E, Laitinen LA. A 10 year asthma programme in Finland: major
change for the better. Thorax 2006;61:663-70.
Haahtela T, von Hertzen L, Mäkelä M, Hannuksela M, the Allergy Programme Working Group. Finnish Allergy Programme 2008-2018 – time to act and change the course. Allergy 2008;63:634-645.
von Hertzen LC, Savolainen J, Hannuksela M, Klaukka T, Lauerma A, Mäkelä MJ, Pekkanen J, Pietinalho A, Vaarala O, Valovirta E, Vartiainen E, Haahtela T. Scientific rationale for the Finnish Allergy Programme 2008-2018: emphasis on prevention and endorsing tolerance. Allergy 2009;64:678-701.
Kupczyk M, Haahtela T, Cruz AA, Kuna P. Reduction of asthma burden is possible through national asthma plans. Allergy 2010;65:415-419.
Reissell E, Herse F, Väänänen J, Karjalainen J, Klaukka T, Haahtela T. Asthma costs in Finland. A public health model to indicate cost effectiveness during 20 years. Finnish Medical Journal 2010;9:811-816. (in Finnish with English summary)
Aït-Khaled N, Enarson DA, Ottmani S, El Sony A, Eltigani M, Sepulveda Chronic airflow limitation in developing countries: burden and priorities R.Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2007;2(2):141-50.
12. Access to Health Care
Tan WC, Aït-Khaled N. Dissemination and implementation of guidelines for the treatment of asthma. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2006; 10(7):710-716.
13. Asthma and Poverty
WHO. Addressing Poverty in TB Control: Options for National TB Control Programmes. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2005. WHO/HTM/TB/2005.352
Enarson DA, Aït-Khaled N, Chiang C-Y et al. Lung Health Consequences of Exposure to Smoke from Domestic Use of Solid Fuels: A guide for low-income countries on what it is and what to do about it. Paris: International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2009.
14. The Economic Burden of Asthma
Ayres JG, Boyd R, Cowie H, et al. Costs of occupational asthma in the UK. Thorax 2011; 66(2): 128-33
Bahadori K, Doyle-Waters MM, Marra C, et al. Economic burden of asthma: a systematic review. BMC Pulm Med 2009; 9: 24
Jonsson B. Measuring the economic burden in asthma in Asthma’s Impact on Society: The Social and Economic Burden. Weiss K, Buist AS, and Sullivan, SD, (Eds). 1999, Marcel Dekker: New York. p 251-267.
Kleinman NL, Brook RA, and Ramachandran S. An employer perspective on annual employee and dependent costs for pediatric asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2009; 103(2): 114-120.
Lai CKW, Kim Y-Y, Kuo S-H, et al. Cost of asthma in the Asia-Pacific region. Eur Resp Rev 2006; 15(98): 10-16.
Lai CKW, Ko FWS. Bhome A et al. Relationship between asthma control status, the Asthma Control Test and urgent health-care utilisation in Asia. Respirology In Press 2011.
van den Akker-van Marle ME, Bruil J, and Detmar SB. Evaluation of cost of disease: Assessing the burden to society of asthma in children in the European Union. Allergy 2005; 60: 140-149.
15. Asthma Research
Akdis M, Burgler S, Crameri R, et al. Interleukins, from 1 to 37, and interferon-gamma: receptors, functions, and roles in diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011; 127(3): 701-21 e1-70.
Barnes PJ. New therapies for asthma: is there any progress? Trends Pharmacol Sci 2010; 31(7): 335-43.
ISAAC Steering Committee. Worldwide variation in prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema: ISAAC. Lancet 1998; 351(9111): 1225-32.
Martino D and Prescott S. Epigenetics and prenatal influences on asthma and allergic airways disease. Chest 2011; 139(3): 640-7.
Omenaas E, Svanes C, Janson C, et al. What can we learn about asthma and allergy from the follow-up of the RHINE and the ECRHS studies? Clin Respir J 2008; 2 Suppl 1: 45-52.
Tantisira K and Weiss S. The pharmacogenetics of asthma treatment. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2009; 9(1): 10-7.
Zhang G, Goldblatt J, and LeSouef P. The era of genome-wide association studies: opportunities and challenges for asthma genetics. J Hum Genet 2009; 54(11): 624-8.
16: Making Asthma a Global Priority
Aït-Khaled N, Auregan G, Bencharif N, et al. Affordability of inhaled corticosteroids as a potential barrier to treatment of asthma in some developing countries. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2000; 4(3): 268-71.
Aït-Khaled N, Enarson DA, Bissell K, et al. Access to inhaled corticosteroids is key to improving quality of care for asthma in developing countries. Allergy 2007; 62(3): 230-6.
Beaglehole R, Bonita R, Horton R, et al. Priority actions for the non-communicable disease crisis. Lancet 2011; 377(9775): 1438-47.
Cameron A, Ewen M, Ross-Degnan D, et al. Medicine prices, availability, and affordability in 36 developing and middle-income countries: a secondary analysis. Lancet 2009; 373(9659): 240-9.
Masoli M, Fabian D, Holt S, et al. Global Burden of Asthma. 2004, Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA).
World Health Organization. Prevention and control of chronic respiratory diseases in low and middle-income African countries: a preliminary report. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2003.
TABLES AND FIGURES
2. Asthma in Children
Figures 2 and 3: Asthma symptoms among 13-14 year olds; Severe asthma among 13-14 year olds with current wheeze. From: Lai CKW et al. Global variation in the prevalence and severity of asthma symptoms: Phase Three of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Thorax 2009; 64(6):476-483.
Figure 4: Changes in asthma prevalence among 13-14 year olds ranked by affluence and mean change per year. Adapted from: Asher MI et al. Worldwide time trends in the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in childhood: ISAAC Phases One and Three repeat multicountry cross-sectional surveys. Lancet 2006: 368(9537): 733-743.
Figure 5: Change in prevalence of current wheeze: 13-14 year olds. From: Asher MI et al. Worldwide time trends in the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in childhood: ISAAC Phases One and Three repeat multicountry cross-sectional surveys. Lancet 2006: 368(9537): 733-743.
3. Asthma in Adults
Figure 1. Prevalence of wheeze and asthma according to Gross National Income (GNI). From: Sembajwe G, Cifuentes M, Tak SW, Kriebel D, Gore R, Punnett L. National income, self-reported wheezing and asthma diagnosis from the World Health Survey. Eur Respir J. 2010;35(2):279.
Figures 2 and 3: Proportions of participants with any asthma whose asthma was graded Severe, Moderate or Mild in the AIRE studies; Proportions of participants with persistent asthma whose asthma was graded Severe, Moderate or Mild in the AIRE studies. From: Rabe K, Adachi M, Lai CKW, Soriano J, Vermeire P, Weiss K, et al. Worldwide severity and control of asthma in children and adults: The global asthma insights and reality surveys. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;114(1):40.
Table 1. ISAAC World Map Data, Symptoms of Asthma. Adapted from: Lai CKW et al. Global variation in the prevalence and severity of asthma symptoms: Phase Three of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Thorax 2009; 64: 476–483. And: ISAAC Steering Committee. Worldwide variations in the prevalence of asthma symptoms: the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Eur Respir J 1998; 12(2): 315-35